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          Glossary of terms


          A

          A/P

          Anterior/Posterior (anatomic terms)

          AAOS

          American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

          Abdomen

          A portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis

          Abduct

          To draw away from the midline

          Abduction

          The act of drawing away from the midline; opposite of adduction

          Abductor

          A muscle performing the function of abduction

          Abscess

          Localized collection of pus

          Acetabulum

          The cavity in the os coxae (hip) into which the head of the femur fits

          Acromion

          Bony process of the scapula which forms the point of the shoulder

          Acute

          Severe and/or short duration; used in speaking of duration and severity of disease

          Adamant

          Extremely hard, as enamel of tooth

          Adduct

          To draw toward the midline

          Adduction

          The act of drawing toward the midline; opposite abduction

          Allograft

          A tissue transplanted to a different individual of the same species

          Alloy

          A mix of metals designed to improve implant material properties for specific purposes

          All-poly

          A component composed entirely of polyethylene, with no metal parts

          Amphiarthrosis

          A joint with little movement and no joint cavity

          Anconeus

          Pertaining to the elbow

          Ankylosis

          The fusion of a joint

          Anteflexion

          A forward curvature; a condition in which the upper part of an organ is bent forward; opposite of retroflexion

          Anterior

          Placed in the front or forward part; opposite of posterior

          Anteversion

          A forward turning; a condition in which an entire organ is abnormally tipped forward

          Apex

          Top or summit

          Aponeurosis

          A flat sheet of white fibrous tissue, usually serving as an attachment for a muscle; plural aponeuroses; aponeurotica, Latin adjective

          Appliance

          Device used in support or fracture fixation external or internal

          Apposition

          The state of being fitted together, being in contact at the ends (see also mineral apposition)

          Aqueous

          Watery

          Arthritis

          Inflammation of a joint

          Arthrodesis

          Fusion of a joint, eliminating all motion

          Arthroplasty

          The surgical reconstruction of a joint

          Arthrosis

          A joint: from the Greek

          Arthrotomy

          Cutting into a joint

          Articular

          Pertaining to a joint; surfaces that "fit together"

          Articulation

          Movement of a joint; from the Latin

          Asepsis

          A condition free from germs; free from infection

          Aspect

          Position, surface, or face

          Aspirate

          To remove by suction

          Asymmetric design

          A design which mirrors the natural, anatomic contours of a joint, a design which comes in right and left configurations

          Atrophy

          A wasting away of tissue usually through disuse

          Autograft

          A tissue transplanted from one part to another part of the same body

          Autonomic

          ?Being self-controlled; independent

          Axial

          ?Pertaining to the axis or line about which a body turns, therefore pertaining to the trunk; opposite of appendicular

          B

          Beads, beaded

          Term used to describe implant coatings made of tiny spheres (beading)

          Biaxial

          Turning about two axes (having two axes)

          Biconcave

          Having two concave surfaces

          Bilateral

          Occurring on both sides of a midline point or pertaining to both sides of the body (ex. bilateral knee replacement means having both knees replaced)

          Biocompatibility

          Materials that can coexist with living tissue without being harmful or toxic or being rejected by the host. The most common materials for joint replacement are polyethylenes, metals and ceramics, each has specific biocompatible characteristics

          Biomechanics

          The study of the relationship between forces and motion in biologic systems like the human body

          Bipolar

          Having two poles or processes

          Blood

          A fluid tissue circulating through heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries

          Bone cement

          Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone (see also cement)

          Brachial

          Pertaining to the arm

          Broach

          A tool or instrument used to enlarge the interior canal of bones to allow for insertion of implants, broaching is the process of enlarging the canal

          C

          Cage

          A type of spinal implant

          Calcaneus

          The heel bone; also termed calcaneum

          Calcar

          A thickened plate of bone near the head of the femur

          Cancellous

          Lattice-like bone structure; softer bone

          Cancellous bone

          A type of bone characterized by a spongy or lattice-like structure. Also known as Trabecular Bone.

          Cancellous-structured titanium

          A specially-manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits bone ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also CSTi)

          Capitate

          Bone of the wrist having head-shaped process.

          Capitulum

          Little head.

          Capsular

          A ligament which surrounds a movable joint.

          Caput

          Head; capitis, "of the head."

          Carpal

          Pertaining to the wrist.

          Carpus

          The wrist; carpi, "of the wrist."

          Caudal

          Pertaining to any tail-like structure; inferior in position.

          Cement

          Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone. (Bone cement)

          Cemented

          An implant which is secured in a patient’s body with the aid of bone cement or the process of using cement to help fix an implant.

          Central

          Situated in the midportion as opposed to peripheral.

          Chronic

          Of long duration; opposite of acute.

          Circumduct

          To rotate in a cone shape around a single point, as in the shoulder joint.

          Circumflex

          Bent or turned about.

          Clavicle

          The collar bone

          Clinical pathway

          Established methodologies and decision trees for use by health professionals and patients in planning and preparing for medical intervention.

          Coatings

          Any number of different materials applied to the surface of an implant or prosthesis to aid in fixation; porous coatings generally permit ingrowth into the implant. (see also porous, beads)

          Cobalt-chrome

          A metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants. (also see CoCr)

          Coccyx

          Last, lowest portion of vertebral column (tailbone).

          CoCr

          Cobalt Chrome Alloy, a metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants.

          Collar, collared

          The top edge of a hip stem implant which rests on the top edges of the bone in which it was implanted.

          Component

          A part of an implant system, for example the patellar component is that piece that either replaces or enhances the original patella (knee cap).

          Concave

          Having a depressed surface; center is at a lower level than edge; opposite of convex.

          Condyle

          A rounded knob on the end of a hone; a knuckle.

          Condyloid

          Resembling a knuckle.

          Congenital

          Present at birth, as in CDH, congenital dislocated hip.

          Congruent

          The degree of constraint of two articular implants. (congruence)

          Convex

          Having a rounded elevated surface; opposite of concave.

          Coracoid

          Like a crow's beak; variant of coronoid.

          Costal

          Pertaining to a rib or ribs.

          Coxa

          The hip; coxae, "of the hip."

          Cranial

          Pertaining to the cranium.

          Cranium

          The skull or brain pan.

          Cruciate

          Shaped like a cross.

          Cruciate ligament

          Any paired set of ligaments that cross over each other in an "X" formation, usually used to refer to the posterior cruciate ligament and the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which help stabilize the forward and backward motion of the knee.

          Cruciate-retaining

          A knee system design that allows the surgeon to keep the patient’s cruciate ligament.

          Cruciate-sacrificing

          A knee system in which the design of the implant must serve to stabilize the forward and back motion of the knee components because of an excised or deficient patient’s ligament. (see also PS)

          CSTi

          A specially manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also Cancellous-structured titanium)

          Cubital

          Pertaining to the tile space in front of the elbow joint.

          Custom

          An implant manufactured to the demands of a surgeon based on the specific needs of one patient

          Cyclic fatigue

          A biomechanical measure of stress placed on a material, measured in "cycles" of regular motion (as in joint motion - rotation, bending, etc.)

          D

          Deltoid

          Triangular; resembling the Greek letter, delta.

          Design rationale

          The justification for an implant design based on extensive research into materials, clinical data, function, style, anatomical constraints, etc.

          Diagnosis

          Recognition of disease from symptoms.

          Diathrosis

          A freely moveable joint; plural diarthroses.

          Digiti

          Of a digit.

          Digitorum

          Of the digits.

          Dislocation

          The displacement of any part, especially the removal temporarily of a bone from its normal position in a joint

          Distal

          Remote; opposite of proximal.

          Dorsiflex

          To turn toward the back; opposite of palmar flex.

          E

          Endosteum

          Tissue surrounding the medullary cavity of bone.

          Epi

          A prefix meaning "on" or "above", opposite of hypo.

          Epicondyle

          A prominence or a bone on or upon a condyle.

          Epiphysis

          A part of process of a bone which ossifles separately before making osseous union with the main portion of the bone; the "growth plate" of bones

          Etiology

          The study of the causes of disease

          Eversion

          The act of turning outward; opposite of inversion.

          Evert

          To turn out; to turn tile sole of the foot outward opposite of invert.

          Extension

          A movement at a joint bringing the two parts into or toward a straight line from a flexed position; opposite of flexion

          External

          On the surface or outer side; opposite of internal. Latin adjective, externus or externa

          Extra

          Prefix meaning "outside of," opposite of intra

          F

          FDA

          Food and Drug Administration

          Femur

          Thigh; bone of the thigh; femoral is the adjective; femoris, "of the thigh." Smaller bone of lower leg; tile splint bone

          Fixation

          The act, process or operation of holding, suturing or fastening something into a fixed position. In orthopedics, often refers to the stability and immobilization of an implant into the patient’s body

          Flexion

          Sagittal plane movement in which the anterior surfaces of two segments are brought closer to each other; opposite of extension; bending of a joint

          Flexure

          The curved or bent part of a structure

          Foramen

          A hole; plural, foramina, or foramens

          Fossa

          A pit or hollow; plural, fossae

          Fracture

          A break in the continuity of bone

          G

          Glenoid

          Resembling a pit or pocket. The glenoid fossa of the scapula is very shallow. Analogous to the acetabulum of the hip

          GMP

          Good Manufacturing Practices, part of total quality systems

          H

          Hallux

          The great toe; hallucis "of the great toe"

          Harris Hip Scores

          A numerical rating scale used for evaluation of the hip. The Harris Hip Rating Scale evaluates pain, function, absence of deformity and range of motion. One hundred is the highest possible total.

          HSS Knee Scores

          Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scores, a numerical scale for rating knees.

          Humerus

          The upper arm bone.

          Hydroxyapatite (HA)

          A bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic similar to normal bone, may be applied to implant surfaces.

          Hyper

          Prefix meaning above; opposite of hypo.

          Hyperplasia

          Increase in size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells.

          Hypertrophy

          Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells.

          Hypo

          A prefix meaning below or under; opposite or epi or hyper.

          I

          IDE

          Investigational Device Exemption (studies of experimental products).

          Ilium

          The bone of the flank; adjective is iliac; ilio is the combining form.

          Implant

          A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body. (see also stem, prosthesis)

          Index

          Referring to the forefinger or "pointing" finger.

          Inferior

          Situated or placed below; opposite of superior; inferioris, a Latin form of the adjective.

          Infra

          A prefix meaning "beneath," opposite of supra.

          Ingrowth

          The process of living bone or tissue growing up to and into the surface of an implant, very important for stabilization and long-term life of the implant. (bone or bony ingrowth)

          Instrument

          A tool or implement used in surgery.

          Inter

          A prefix meaning "between".

          Interbody fusion

          A surgical technique for achieving bony fusion between invertebral bodies, term used to describe a specific back surgery technique.

          Interface

          Surface forming a common boundary between two bodies (used to describe the interaction of implant and living tissue).

          Internal

          Within or on the inside.

          Intra

          A prefix meaning "within".

          Inversion

          The act of tuning inward; opposite of eversion.

          Invert

          To turn in; to turn the sole of the foot inward; opposite of evert.

          Involuntary

          Performed against the will or consent.

          Ischium

          Bone of the hip; adjective is ischiatic, ischial, or sciatic.

          ISO

          International Standards Organization, a standards issuing body.

          K

          Knee Society Score

          A numerical scale for evaluating knee function developed by the Knee Society.

          Kyphosis

          An abnormal condition (curvature) of the spine; hunch-backed.

          L

          Lateral

          Pertaining to the side; opposite of medial.

          LD

          Low-demand or low density

          LDPE

          Low Density Polyethylene

          Ligament

          Fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones serving to bind them together and to facilitate or limit motion.

          Lordosis

          Abnormal anterior convexity of the lumbar spine.

          Lumen

          Space within a tube or organ.

          Lunate

          A bone of the carpus shaped like a crescent moon.

          Luxation

          Dislocation of a joint.

          M

          M/L

          Medial/Lateral (anatomic term)

          Major

          Larger, opposite of minor, majus is neuter adjective.

          Malleolus

          A little hammer (mallet); a hammer-shaped process; ankle bone. Plural, malleoli.

          Mandible

          Bone of lower jaw.

          Marrow

          Soft central part of a bone.

          Maxilla

          A jawbone; particularly the bone of the upper jaw.

          Media

          Middle

          Medial

          Pertaining to the center; opposite of lateral.

          Median

          Pertaining to the middle; that is, between two other structures.

          Meniscectomy

          Removal of the meniscus cartilage of the knee.

          Meniscus

          A "C" shaped cartilage in the knee which provides a stabilization system for the knee and a measure of shock absorption

          Metacarpus

          Beyond the instep; the five bones of the foot between the toes and tarsal bone

          Metal-backed

          Term used to describe implants that have a polyethylene liner set in a metal shell or on a metal base, the metal portion would rest in a prepared area in the bone and the polyethylene side would move against other metal components

          Minor

          Smaller, opposite of major.

          Morphology

          The study of the structure of organisms, used colloquially to refer to the structure of body parts

          N

          Navicular

          Boat shaped; carpal bone at the base of the thumb. Also called the scaffoid

          Necrosis

          Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy tissue.

          Non-porous

          An implant designed to be used with bone cement for stabilization; a surface that is not designed for nor coated with surfaces for ingrowth

          O

          O.R.I.F.

          Open Reduction, Internal Fixation.

          Oblique

          Slanting; between horizontal and vertical direction..; Latin adjective, obliquus

          Olecranon

          From the Greek word for elbow. The prominence at the proximal end of the ulna

          Opposition

          The act of opposing one part to another.

          Orbital

          Pertaining to the orbit (eye).

          Organ

          A group of tissues having a special function.

          Orthopedics

          Branch of medical science that deals with treatment of disorders involving locomotor structures of the body, especially the skeleton, joints, muscle, fascia.

          Orthopedist

          A physician specializing in orthopedics.

          Os

          Bone; Os coxae - hip bone.

          Osmosis

          Passage of fluid across a membrane from a lesser to a more highly concentrated solution

          Ossification

          Formation of bone.

          Osteophyte

          An abnormal bony outgrowth

          Osteoporosis

          Increased porosity of bone.

          Osteotomy

          Cutting and repositioning bone to more functional position.

          Outcome management

          The process of collecting, tracking and interpreting outcomes data

          Outcomes

          The results of surgery in terms of patient satisfaction, reduction of pain, improved function, etc. Outcomes are tracked by hospitals and practices.

          Oxygenless

          A patented procedure used by Zimmer in the packaging of polyethylenes where oxygen is removed from the packaging. Lab testing has shown the process decreases the wear rates of PE (polyethylene).

          P

          Palmar

          The palm of the hand.

          Para

          Prefix meaning "beside," "accessory to" or near.

          Patella

          The kneecap

          Patient Satisfaction Surveys

          Surveys which seek to measure patients’ satisfaction with their surgery, recovery, etc. These form part of the outcomes data that surgeons and hospitals track.

          Pearls

          Expert surgical techniques developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures. (see surgical pearls)

          Pedal

          Pertaining to the foot.

          Pelvis

          A basin or basin-like structure.

          Peri

          Prefix meaning "around."

          Peripheral

          Located on or near the surface of a part.

          Pes

          The foot; pedis, "of the foot."

          Phalanges

          Plural of phalanx, which refers to any bone of the finger or toe.

          Plantar

          Pertaining to the sole of the foot; plaritaris; Latin adjective plantae, "of the sole of the foot."

          Plasma

          Fluid portion of the blood.

          Plasma spray

          A coating for implants

          Plastics

          A common term that in orthopedic devices refers usually to polyethylene and more specifically to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). (see also polyethylene, UHMWPE)

          PMA

          Pre-Market Approval (FDA approval after IDE study is complete).

          PMMA

          Poly methylmethacrylate (bone cement). (see also cement, bone cement)

          Polyethylene

          A type of plastic formed by the polymerization of ethylene. Different structural properties come from differences in molecular weight, branching, cross-linkage and crystallinity. The most common form used in orthopedic devices is ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE).

          Pore

          Small holes or spaces on the surface or interior of a material.

          Porous

          Characterized by pores and open spaces.

          Porous-coated

          The design feature of a type of implant where the metal has small surface openings into which bone or tissue is intended to grow for permanent stabilization.

          Posterior

          Situated behind or toward the back; opposite of anterior.

          Press-fit

          Describes the fit at the interface of an implant with the surrounding bone; the implant is implanted without cement and is tightly "pressed" or impacted into the patient’s bone. (see also uncemented)

          Primary

          Initial or first; in joint replacement, this term is used to indicate the first surgery to repair or replace a joint as opposed to a revision surgery which replaces or revises an implant.

          Process

          A slender projecting point; Latin, processus.

          Prognosis

          The likely outcome of an illness

          Pronate

          To turn palm downward (opposite: supinate).

          Prone

          Lying with face downward (opposite: supine).

          Prosthesis

          Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute. An artificial organ or part.

          Protract

          To extend forward or outward; opposite of retract.

          Proximal

          Nearest; opposite of distal.

          PS

          Posterior Stabilized; a posterior stabilized knee is a type of semiconstrained total knee system that compensates for a deficient or absent posterior cruciate ligament through its surface geometry (its design minimizes forward and backward movement of the knee and substitutes for the function of the ligament).

          Pseudarthrosis

          A false joint developing after a fracture that has not united.

          Pseudo

          A prefix signifying "false.

          PT

          Premier Total

          Pubis

          Pubic bone

          R

          Radiolucent

          Allowing x-rays to pass through, radiolucent areas appear dark on x-rays.

          Radius

          A bone of the forearm.

          Ream,reaming

          A verb meaning to gouge out holes or enlarge holes already made, in orthopedic surgery, bones need to be reamed to allow for the implantation of a prosthesis.

          Recurvatum

          Hyperextension of the knee.

          Reduction

          Restoration to normal position.

          Retract

          To pull back; opposite of protract.

          Retrieve

          To remove an implant from a patient (retrieved, retrieval)

          Retro

          Prefix meaning behind.

          Retroflexion

          A backward bending of one part of an organ on another portion; Opposite of anteflexion.

          Retroversion

          A backward turning; the entire organ is turned backward; opposite of anteversion.

          Revision

          In orthopedic surgery, this term indicates a subsequent surgery to alter, replace or remove an implant

          Roentgenogram

          A photograph made by means of roentgen rays or x-rays. The rays are named in honor of their discoverer.

          Roentgenoscopy

          Examination by means of a fluoroscope

          ROM

          The area through which a joint may be moved in all planes, measured in degrees. The greater the ROM, the more flexible the joint. One of the goals of joint replacement is to improve a patient’s ROM in the joint that may have been lost to arthritis, trauma or deformity. (range of motion)

          Rotation

          The act of turning about a centrally located length axis

          S

          Sac

          Any bag-like organ

          Sacrum

          Five fused vertebrae below the last lumbar vertebra

          Sagittal

          Pertaining to the median vertical plane of the body

          Scapula

          The shoulder blade.

          Scoliosis

          Lateral abnormal curvature of the spine

          Semilunar

          Shaped like a half moon

          Septic

          Infection due to presence of pathogenlc organisms

          Serrated

          Having a saw-tooth edge

          Serum

          Clear portion of any animal fluid

          Shear

          A biomechanical term meaning a load applied parallel to the surface of a structure; shear strength is the amount of resistance in a material to angular deformation (bending) resulting from shear forces

          Shell

          The acetabular component, the part of a hip replacement system that serves for the hip socket

          Sinus

          A cavity

          Skeleton

          The hard framework of the body. The bones of the body collectively

          Spinous

          A spine-like process; Latin adjective, spinatus

          SS

          Stainless Steel

          Stem

          A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body (see also implant, prosthesis)

          Sterile

          Clean and free from all living micro-organisms

          Sternum

          The breast bone

          Sub

          Prefix meaning "below" or "beneath"

          Subclavian

          Beneath the clavicle

          Subluxation

          A partial or incomplete dislocation

          Submaxillary

          Beneath the maxilla

          Subscapular

          Beneath the scapula

          Subsidence

          The settling of a prosthesis after implantation; it is determined by comparing x-rays immediately after surgery to x-rays taken at a later date. Subsidence is a sure sign of loosening of an implant

          Superior

          Higher; opposite of inferior; superioris, a Latin form of the adjective

          Supinate

          To turn the palm of the hand upward (opposite: pronate)

          Supine

          Lying flat on the back (opposite: prone)

          Supra

          Prefix meaning "above;" super has same meaning; opposite of sub

          Surgical pearls

          Expert surgical techniques or tips developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures

          Surgical technique

          A series of steps required to complete a surgical procedure (or operation)

          Symphysis

          A growing together

          Synovectomy

          An immovable joint

          Synovia

          A union of bones by means of cartilage

          Synovial Membrane

          A thin tissue that lines the capsule surrounding the joint

          T

          Talus

          The ankle; a bone of the ankle. The tarsal bone articulating with the distal tibia and fibula.

          Tarsus

          (1) The instep; the seven bones forming the back portion of the foot (2) Connective tissue framework of the eyelids.

          Telesession

          An instructional course or lecture provided by one-way video, often a telesession consists of an expert surgeon discussing and/or demonstrating specific techniques or characteristics of an implant system.

          Template

          An outline used to trace bones in order to standardize its form; surgeons use templates of implants to measure against a patient’s x-rays to select the best size and best design for the patient’s anatomy and surgical needs.

          Tendon

          Fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones and other parts. Syn. - sinew

          Tensile strength

          A biomechanical measurement of the amount of stress required to cause a given material to fail.

          Thoracic

          Pertaining to the chest; thoracico or thoraco, containing forms

          Ti

          The abbreviation for Titanium, a metal often used in implants

          Tibia

          Latin name of shin bone. Larger bone in the lower leg. Pertaining to the tibia; Latin adjective, tibialis

          Tissue

          A collection of similar cells specialized to perform a particular function

          Titanium

          A metal often used in the manufacture of orthopedic devices or implants. It has good fatigue, wear and strength characteristics and is often combined with other metals in alloys which enhance desirable characteristics.

          Trabecular

          A type of mature bone commonly found at the ends of bones, it is composed of a latticework of bony plates and columns. Its structure gives trabecular bone a great deal of strength despite having less bony material than cortical bone.

          Trochanter

          Either of two bony processes of the upper femoral shaft for muscle attachment

          Trochlear groove

          The articular portion of the anterior surface of the distal femur (the front-facing notch at the lowest part of the femur where the femur joins the knee joint, this groove provides a shallow depression where the patella slides as the knee articulates).

          Tubercle

          A small rounded elevation of eminence on a bone

          Tuberosity

          Broad eminence on a bone

          U

          UHMWPE

          Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, a type of polyethylene with superior wear properties, very commonly used in orthopedic devices. (see also polyethylene, plastic)

          Ulna

          The inner and larger bone or the forearm; In the correct anatomic position, palms forward, the inner and larger bone of the forearm, between the wrist and the elbow, on the side opposite the thumb.

          Ultra-congruent

          Highly congruent, contains a high degree of constraint between two articular implants (see also congruent)

          Uncemented

          A prosthesis that is implanted without cement (see also press-fit)

          UNI

          Unicompartmental knee (also can be the abbreviation for unilateral)

          Unilateral

          One-sided, affecting only one-side (ex. a unilateral knee replacement would replace just one knee, not both) (see also uni)

          V

          Valgus

          A term denoting position meaning bent outward (knock-knee) or twisted, applied especially to deformities in which a part is bent outward. Also increased femoral head-neck angle

          Value-added services

          This is a broad term that encompasses systems that help orthopedic customers (surgeons and hospitals) meet the demands of managed care, these systems are not directly related to orthopedic implants

          Varus

          (1) Turned inward; bowlegged. (2) A condition in which a clubfooted person walks on outer border of the foot. Also, decreased femoral head-neck angle

          Vastus

          Wide or great

          Vertex

          The summit or apex

          Viscous

          Sticky or gummy, thick fluid

          Vitreous

          Glassy

          Voluntary

          Performed in accordance with the will; opposite of involuntary

          W

          Wear

          The loss of material from solid surfaces due to mechanical abrasion

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